The researchers, led by Frederick W. Fraunfelder , ., found 171 cases between 1986 and 2009 of fluoroquinolone use associated with double vision through a review of reports from the Food and Drug Administration , World Health Organization , and the National Registry of Drug-Induced Ocular Side Effects . The median patient age was years, medication doses were within recommended levels, and the interval from starting medication to onset of double vision was days on average. Medication was discontinued in 53 patients, and diplopia resolved in all cases.
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The caudal approach to the epidural space involves the use of a Tuohy needle, an intravenous catheter, or a hypodermic needle to puncture the sacrococcygeal membrane . Injecting local anaesthetic at this level can result in analgesia and/or anaesthesia of the perineum and groin areas. The caudal epidural technique is often used in infants and children undergoing surgery involving the groin, pelvis or lower extremities. In this population, caudal epidural analgesia is usually combined with general anaesthesia since most children do not tolerate surgery when regional anaesthesia is employed as the sole modality.