Castration can occur by accident (. war injuries, pelvic crushing from auto accidents, severe burns, etc.), as a form of torture, punishment, or self-mutilation, or be the result of surgery, perhaps for a medical condition such as testicular cancer or prostate cancer. Some medicines that treat prostate cancer result in "pharmacologic castration," because they prevent the production of testosterone. Some courts have ordered men who are habitually sexually abusive to undergo injections of medications to stop testosterone production, hoping that this measure will prevent these men from continuing to sexually abuse others.
Caffeine: Mild central nervous system stimulant
Claim: Helps you burn fat and protect carbohydrate stores; makes you feel energized.
Evidence: Caffeine increases alertness and acts as a central nervous system stimulant. Although caffeine promotes fatty acids release, fat burning does not appear to increase during exercise and carbohydrate stores are not protected. Caffeine is considered a banned substance by the National Collegiate Athletic Association if too high an amount is found in urine. It also helps with mental sharpness and decreases perceived exertion.
It’s important for RDs to understand that supplement use is widespread among athletes of all ages and at every level. Aspiring athletes as young as those in middle school are using Adolescents often feel pressure to obtain athletic scholarships and look to ergogenic aids as a way to realize their goals. That’s problematic because RDs don’t have evidence supporting the use of nutritional ergogenic aids in young athletes. “Most of the research we have on ergogenic aids is done on the adult population over the age of 18,” Mangieri says.