Formed in 1981 by drummer Lars Ulrich and guitarist and vocalist James Hetfield, Metallica have become one of the most influential and commercially successful rock bands in history, having sold 110 million albums worldwide and playing to millions of fans the world over. They have scored several multi-platinum albums, including 1991's “Metallica” (commonly referred to as "The Black Album"), which is the best selling album in the history of Soundscan, scanning 16 million albums in the United States alone. Their latest studio album, Death Magnetic, was certified platinum just six weeks after it debuted atop the Billboard Top 200 Album chart in October 2008. “Death Magnetic” charted at #1 in 32 countries and sold five million copies worldwide. Metallica have also garnered numerous awards and accolades, including nine Grammy Awards, two American Music Awards, and multiple MTV Video Music Awards, and were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum in 2009. The band celebrated its 30th-Anniversary in 2011 with a week's worth of fan club concerts at the Fillmore Theater in San Francisco, CA. In 2012, Metallica unveiled a brand new stage in Mexico City that featured iconic elements that spanned its 30-year career and is featured in the film Metallica Through the Never. They played eight shows to nearly 180,000 fans at the Sports Arena in Mexico City. Picturehouse released Metallica Through the Never in North America on September 27, 2013. The music-driven, 3D motion picture film immerses audiences in a bracing, raw and visceral cinematic experience with spectacular live performance footage of Metallica's most iconic songs -- created exclusively for film -- combined with a bold, narrative story featuring imagery drawn from the band's trailblazing iconography. In December 2013, Metallica performed a rare concert in Antarctica where all attendees listened to the performance through headphones to protect the environment. With that show, the band made history by becoming the first act to ever play all seven continents (all within a year), earning themselves a spot in the 60th Anniversary Edition of the Guinness Book of World Records. Metallica performed “One” with Chinese Pianist and Grammy Ambassador Lang Lang on the 56th Annual Grammy Awards on January 26th and two days later Metallica Through the Never was released on DVD and Blu-Ray. On November 24, 2014, Metallica will release a ten-year anniversary 2-disc Blu-Ray of their long out of print, groundbreaking movie, METALLICA: Some Kind of Monster.
In addition to the dopamine-release system, or the reward system, long-term drug abuse changes other brain chemical systems that control the ability to learn, to remember, and to exert control over one's behavior. With repeated abuse, a type of conditioning (or non-conscious memory formation) occurs in which a person becomes highly sensitive to environmental cues associated with drug-taking. These cues can include people, places, or even mood states linked to the drug experience. They can trigger uncontrollable drug cravings, even when the drug itself is not available, and lead to relapse in formerly abstinent drug abusers.