The second clinical trial (Trial 2) was a 12-week randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlledtrial that enrolled 558 generally healthy postmenopausal women between 40 to 80 years of age (mean years) who, at baseline, had identified moderate to severe dyspareunia as their most bothersome symptom of vulvar and vaginal atrophy. In addition to dyspareunia, women had ≤ 5% superficial cells on vaginal smear and a vaginal pH > 5. Women were randomized in a 2:1ratio to receive once daily vaginal insert mg INTRAROSA (n=376)or placebo (n=182).The primary endpoints and study conduct were the same or similar to those in Trial 1.
Compared with normal endometrial tissues, mRNA levels of StAR, side chain cleavage P450, 3beta-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-2, 17-hydroxylase/17-20-lyase, aromatase, and SF1 were significantly higher in endometriotic tissues. PGE2 induced the expression of all steroidogenic genes; production of progesterone, estrone, and estradiol; and StAR promoter activity in endometriotic cells. Overexpression of SF1 induced, whereas COUP-TFII or WT1 suppressed, StAR promoter activity. PGE2 induced coordinate binding of SF1 to StAR and aromatase promoters but decreased COUP-TFII binding in endometriotic cells. COUP-TFII or WT1 binding to both promoters was significantly higher in endometrial compared with endometriotic cells.